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In fact, the two cleric-printers would likely have felt quite at home, surrounded as they were by so many of their countrymen. At the Subiaco monasteries, during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, Italian monks were outnumbered by foreigners. Of the approximately monks recorded by name from to , fewer than one third 83 were from Italy; from Germany, 19 from France; with others from as far afield as Bohemia, Poland, Prussia, Hungary, Spain, and elsewhere north of the Alps.
History of German
Viktor vor Mainz. He died 11 August , perhaps around the time Sweynheym and Pannartz arrived in Subiaco. By , or at the latest, Sweynheym and Pannartz had arrived in Subiaco.
Perhaps they were invited by Juan Torquemada 2 — , the Abbot in commendum of the Subiaco monasteries, Santa Scholastica and Sacro Speco since They likely traveled light with a bare minimum of belongings, including their type or at the very least their type-making materials.
They would not have had to lug a press across the Alps, as it was something that could easily have been constructed upon their arrival with the help of the Subiaco monks and any others that accompanied them on their journey from Germany. They began by printing copies of a Latin Grammar by the fourth-century tutor of Jerome, the Roman Grammarian, Aelius Donatus, of which, unfortunately, no copy has survived.
Just as the first printers in Germany looked to German manuscripts exemplars for their gothic textura types, so too, Sweynheym and Pannartz modeled their letterforms on contemporary Italian manuscript book-hands, humanistic scripts. There is no single exemplar, just as there is no singular humanistic script. It existed in many forms with local variations, further differentiated by the idiosyncrasies or unique characteristics of individual scribes, like Antonio di Mario and Giovanni de Stia.
The capitals of the Subiaco type are clearly roman, though they are antique square capitals as interpreted by fifteenth-century scribes. A is relatively wide with no serif at the apex; H is among the most peculiar of the capitals, with its broken right stem. However, this form was not a fanciful creation of Sweynheym and Pannartz, but is to be found in early fifteenth-century specimens See Hargreaves, p.
I has a spur protruding from the left-center of the stem. The diagonal stroke of N meets the right stem mid way — a form not uncommon in humanist scripts. Furthermore, there is, and it was to be expected for a first effort, a lack of unity between the upper- and lowercase alphabets. For example, the stress or axis in the capitals is sometimes almost perpendicular, while in the lowercase it is oblique. Serif treatment is rather haphazard. As Morison notes, [Morison, The Library, p.
Overall, there is little contrast in the letterforms. The principal difference between the lowercase of the Subiaco roman and contemporary humanistic scripts is how narrow many of the lowercase letters are cut. This feature, combined with tight spacing makes for a relatively dark color. That there was no local market for their books likely precipitated their move to Rome in It is somewhat peculiar that the Benedictine monks did not continue with their own press.
The letter also suggests that they could print copies.
The Subiaco roman type was never again used by Sweynheym and Pannartz, suggesting that the Subiaco monks were heirs to their type and type-making equipment. While popes and antipopes played theocratic tug of war between Avignon and Rome during the Great Schism that straddled the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, Rome, neglected, fell into disrepair, and its citizens scattered. When the Schism was finally resolved at the Council of Constance, the newly elected pope Martin V set about restoring Rome.
He encouraged immigration and in response a sizeable contingent of Germans settled in the city. At the center of the German neighborhood stood their church, St. With their newly established Roman press, they produced a new roman type. This second roman differs in a number of respects. The approach to serifs is rather more consistent. A number of the capitals are wider: most notably E , F , and K.
In the lowercase, most letters are wider, including e which takes on the nib or extended crossbar. Though famous for introducing the typographic book and roman type to Italy, it appears that Sweynheym and Pannartz were not the most business-minded of men. By they were on the verge of bankruptcy, and their editor, Giovanni Andrea Bussi, petitioned the Pope for relief. The petition lists, in chronological order, their editions and respective print runs totaling an impressive 12, volumes , including their Subiaco imprints.
And, Bussi, writing on their behalf, makes very specific demands: Scholderer, 50 Essays, pp. It was once assumed that their petition had fallen on deaf ears, but a document discovered by Schlecht, in a volume of miscellaneous petitions presented to Pope Sixtus IV from August to August , reveals that their petition did indeed meet with a favorable response, no doubt owing to the influence of their editor, Giovanni Andrea Bussi, who had recently been appointed chief librarian of the recently re-founded Vatican library.
Conversely, Ulrich Han, invited to Rome by Torquemada, fared very differently. But why was Ulrich Han to flourish where Sweynheym and Pannartz failed?
Manual Evolution: Roman (German Edition)
The answer to their contrasting fortunes lies in their books, in what they chose to print. Sweynheym and Pannartz almost exclusively produced the works of Classical authors; and they never printed with gothic types; in fact, they appear not to have owned a single gothic font. And despite the good graces of the rich and influential Massimo family, and the benefices of the Pope, they printed fewer and sold far fewer books than Ulrich Han. Even after their petition of , when it might have occurred to Sweynheym and Pannartz that, perhaps, their choice of titles to print was the source of their financial woes; and surrounded by mountains of unsold inventory, they did not think to print different genres and authors.
That the newly appointed cardinal Torquemada, who had likely invited Sweynheym and Pannartz to Subiaco, did not seek their services for printing his Meditationes , 31 Dec. For indeed, their publishing program — almost exclusively the Classics set in roman —, even in the face of acute financial hardship, says something, perhaps, of either their principled aesthetic or obduracy. Edwin Hall, p. Why was Ulrich Han able to succeed where Sweynheym and Pannartz failed? While Sweynheym and Pannartz enjoyed the palatial residence of the Massimo brothers, and an important association with Bussi, they continued to publish editions that they struggled to sell, Ulrich Han had not only found the good favor of Cardinal Torquemada, but too he had partnered with Chardella who, though not a printer himself, evidently understood the market for books.
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Besides books on canon law this new partnership produced books like the liturgical treatise Rationale divinorum officiorum by the thirteenth-century Bishop and canonist Guillaume Durand the uncle, not the lesser-known nephew by the same name. In the same year, four editions of the classics and not a single religious work issue from the press of Sweynheym and Pannartz.
However, though Ulrich Han was on the whole successful, it appears that he, like so many fifteenth-century printers, was never far from financial insolvency. In , Han, unable to pay his back rent of 40 ducats, offered a book in lieu of payment, that his landlords, the brotherhood of the Anima, sold — for only three ducats.
The evolution of London: the city's near-2,000 year history mapped
Maas, p. Owing to the huge investments in capital required to print hundreds of books, a single misstep could spell disaster. The most successful printers were the most flexible, and those who were best at reading the market. We should not conflate the romanticism of the Private Press movement with incunabula printers, most of whom were just one book away from financial ruin. Georg Lauer, in Rome, at the insistence of his editor, Pomponius Laetus, successfully shifted his attention from classical editions to legal texts and pamphlets for the papal court.
Their Historia naturalis , another classical text, published in May , is the last work they publish in partnership. Pannartz continued printing alone in the same workshop housed in the Palace of the Massimo brothers, Pietro and Francisco, until He died some time before The book was completed by a fellow German printer, Arnoldus Buckinck on October 10, ISTC: ip , a folio replete with woodcuts and twenty-seven magnificent copper-engraved maps.
The preface is addressed to Sixtus IV, the very Pope who had granted benefices to Sweynheym and Pannartz a little over five years before. Many histories of nascent print imply, that upon its introduction, roman type quickly became ubiquitous. However, it is worth noting that, although the roman is an Italian development, its use in Italy, at least in the fifteenth century, was not as widespread as is often suggested.
One hundred and thirty-eight fifteenth-century Italian presses appear not to have used any roman types. Hirsch, p.
And in German-speaking nations, various forms of blackletter or gothic types continued to dominate well beyond the Renaissance. The early history of roman type is confused by terms like semi-gothic and semi-roman. Their type was based on humanistic manuscript hands, scripts that did display some elements of gothic — not because such scripts were somehow semi-humanistic, but because they had, to some extent, evolved from gothic manuscript hands. But their types were humanistic and therefore roman; no more semi-roman than they were semi humanistic. By the estates focused on strengthening the Imperial Circles and the Imperial Army and supported legislation such as the Imperial Trades Edict of , which regulated the craft guilds of the empire.
These courts settled several major interterritorial disputes through peaceful arbitration in the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. They also resolved disputes within territories between princes and their estates. In a case cited by Peter H. Wilson, Duke William Hyacinth, ruler of Nassau-Siegen, was exiled from his tiny principality in by soldiers from Cologne acting on the instructions of the Imperial Aulic Court, which had ruled that he had forfeited his throne through his autocratic and irrational policies.
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In the free imperial city of Hamburg, a century-long dispute between the city council and the citizenry was settled in through an imperial commission. At least a quarter of all cases heard by the Imperial Aulic Court in the period — were brought by subjects against their rulers, a clear sign of the relevance of imperial institutions to subjects and princes in the last years of the empire.
Rise of the Holy Roman Empire
By the mid-eighteenth century the creation of standing armies divided the empire into "armed" and "unarmed" territories. Brandenburg-Prussia led the way with a standing army established by Frederick William I, the Great Elector ruled — The Hohenzollern electors of Brandenburg, who were also the dukes of Prussia which lay outside the empire , acquired the title of "king in Prussia" in — an elevation sanctioned by Emperor Leopold I in return for military support from Brandenburg-Prussia. By the reign of Frederick II the Great ruled — , Brandenburg-Prussia had joined the great powers of Europe and pursued its own foreign policy.
For Brandenburg-Prussia, as for Austria, the empire was now only one political factor among many. Historians speak of the "centrifugal forces" that pulled the empire apart in the late eighteenth century. Its two largest principalities, Habsburg Austria and Hohenzollern Brandenburg-Prussia, expanded eastward in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, each tapping sources of authority and power outside the empire; the rulers of Saxony and Hanover did the same by accepting crowns in Poland and Great Britain.
The lesser territories of the empire, the so-called "Third Germany," focused more attention on the empire, but competition between Austria and Brandenburg-Prussia, the rigidity of the treaties of Westphalia, and the ponderous pace of imperial institutions combined to leave the empire politically impotent. A series of reforms in came too late to restore political relevance to the empire and could not prevent its elimination, through the abdication of Emperor Francis II ruled — , at the instigation of Napoleon. The tradition of the empire died, and its revival was not seriously discussed at the Congress of Vienna in Lindberg, Carter, ed.
The European Reformations Source-book. Oxford and Malden, Mass. Good documentation of the Protestant Reformation in the empire. Macartney, C. New York , Pufendorf, Samuel. Die Verfassung des deutschen Reiches. Translated and edited by Horst Denzer. Scribner, eds.